On the basis of organisation of DNA, the cells are of two types: prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.
- These cells have well organised nucleus and several membrane bound cell organelles.
- Genetic material or DNA is organised into chromosomes and chromatin.
- Plant cells possess cell wall, plastids and large central vacuole, that are absent in animal cells. Animal cells rather possess centrioles.
Differences between eukaryotic plant and animal cells
|Pant Cell||Animal Cell|
|Plant cells are larger in size and rigid in shape.||Animal cells are smaller in size and can often change their shape.|
|Cells are bound by a rigid cell wall on the exterior.||Cells are bound by plasma membrane only and cell wall is absent.|
|Plastids are found.||Plastids are absent|
|Possesses large central vacuole.||Possesses many small vacuoles.|
|Lysosomes are rare.||Lysosomes are abundant.|
|Nucleus lies on one side in peripheral cytoplasm.||Nucleus lies in centre.|
|Centrioles are usually absent.||Centrioles are present.|
- It consists of membrane bound organelles which function in close coordination with one another, viz., endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles.
- Nuclear envelope is also considered a part of endomembrane system as its lumen is in continuation with the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum.
- Organelles like plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes are not a part of endomembrane system.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
- ER is a complicated and interconnected system of membrane lined channels that run through cytoplasm.
- ER divides the intracellular space into two distinct compartments, i.e., luminal (inside ER) and extra luminal (cytoplasm) compartments.
- It is quite extensive in cells of pancreas, simple in storage cells, etc. and absent in eggs, mature RBCs, etc.